Definition of Condensation
Condensation is the transformation of water vapor from gas to liquid, yielding observable droplets or particles. This transformation occurs when the water vapor temperature falls to the dew point, marking the air's saturation limit, beyond which it cannot contain additional water vapor. Integral to the Earth's hydrological cycle, condensation prompts the formation of clouds, fog, dew, and frost.

Factors Influencing Condensation
Temperature: The capability of air to maintain water vapor diminishes as temperature falls. Condensation sets in when the air temperature equals the dew point, facilitating the transformation of water vapor into liquid droplets or solid particles.

Relative Humidity: Relative humidity, a critical factor in condensation, represents the ratio of the current quantity of water vapor to the maximum quantity that the air can hold at a specific temperature, expressed as a percentage. Condensation becomes probable when relative humidity attains 100%, signaling air saturation.

Cooling Mechanisms: A range of mechanisms can induce cooling and subsequent condensation. These encompass radiative cooling at night, adiabatic cooling with the rise and expansion of air, and evaporative cooling when water transitions from a surface into vapor, lowering the temperature of the adjacent air.

Condensation in the Atmosphere
Cloud Formation: Moist air undergoing upward motion, cooling, and attaining its dew point forms clouds. During this process, water vapor condenses onto microscopic airborne particulates, giving rise to cloud droplets. The resultant cloud type depends on numerous determinants, encompassing temperature, humidity, and the altitude at which condensation takes place.

Fog Formation: Fog, a ground-level cloud, materializes when air near the surface cools to its dew point. This phenomenon may be a result of radiative cooling at night, interaction with a colder surface, or the convergence of disparate air masses with varying temperatures.

Condensation on Surfaces
Dew Formation: Dew arises from the condensation on surfaces when they cool below the dew point. This typically happens during calm, clear nights, when radiative cooling leads to a swift decline in temperature on the ground and nearby surfaces.

Frost Formation: Frost appears when the dew point temperature dips below the freezing mark, precipitating the conversion of water vapor in the air directly into ice crystals on chill surfaces. This process occurs on a variety of surfaces during cold, clear nights.

Condensation in Everyday Life
Condensation in Buildings: Within a building, condensation manifests when warm, humid air makes contact with cold surfaces, windows or walls included. This interaction can instigate issues of dampness, mold development, and damage to the structure's materials.

Condensation in Meteorology: Meteorologists study condensation processes to comprehend and forecast weather patterns, involving cloud and fog formation, precipitation, and the appearance of dew or frost. Precise prognostications related to condensation aid in superior planning and preparedness for weather-related occurrences.